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Stearic acid

Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid that has an enormous variety of uses as an ingredient in food, cosmetics, and industrial products. It is extracted from many types of animal fats, vegetable fats, and some oils. It is also often used to change the consistency or melting temperature of a product, as a lubricant, or to prevent oxidation. The versatility and cost effectiveness of the acid makes it a popular ingredient in countless types of products, from candles and soap to lotion and margarine.

One of the most popular uses of stearic acid is in the production of candles. It is often used to harden the wax and strengthen the candle. It also has an impact on the melting point of the wax, improving the durability and consistency of the candle. For these reasons it can be found in most craft stores in the candle making section.

Stearic acid is also commonly used in the production of soap. In fact, soap may have been accidentally discovered in the ancient world by people trying to extract oil from animal fat; this process was likely similar to how stearic acid is extracted from animal fat. Soap made from animal fat, however, suffers the drawback of having low water solubility, which can result in a residual film on bathtubs and skin. Therefore, rather than as a primary ingredient, stearic acid is usually used as an additive. It can harden soaps and give shampoos a pearly color and consistency.

Hydrogen Peroxede

Hydrogen peroxide ( H 2 O 2 )

is an oxidizer commonly used as a bleach . Hidrogen peroksida ( H 2 O 2 ) adalah oksidator yang biasa digunakan sebagai pemutih . It is the simplest peroxide (a compound with an oxygen-oxygen single bond). Ini adalah sederhana peroksida (senyawa dengan ikatan oksigen-oksigen tunggal). Hydrogen peroxide is a clear liquid , slightly more viscous than water , that appears colorless in dilute solution. Hidrogen peroksida adalah jelas cairan , sedikit lebih kental dari air , yang muncul berwarna dalam larutan encer. It is used as a disinfectant , antiseptic , oxidizer, and in rocketry as a propellant . [ 2 ] The oxidizing capacity of hydrogen peroxide is so strong that it is considered a highly reactive oxygen species . Hal ini digunakan sebagai disinfektan , antiseptik , oxidizer, dan dalam peroketan sebagai propelan . [2] Kapasitas oksidasi peroksida hidrogen begitu kuat sehingga dianggap sangat spesies oksigen reaktif . Hydrogen peroxide is naturally produced in organisms as a by-product of oxidative metabolism . Hidrogen peroksida secara alami diproduksi dalam organisme sebagai produk sampingan dari metabolisme oksidatif . Nearly all living things (specifically, all obligate and facultative aerobes ) possess enzymes known as catalyse peroxidases , which harmlessly and catalytically decompose low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. Hampir semua makhluk hidup (khususnya, semua obligat dan fakultatif aerob ) memiliki enzim yang dikenal sebagai mengkatalisis peroksidasa , yang tidak berbahaya dan katalitik terurai konsentrasi rendah peroksida hidrogen terhadap air dan oksigen.

Laundry Detergent

Penghilang noda di baju

Jengkel rasanya mendapatkan baju kesayangan kita kena noda seperti sauce, kopi bahkan ballpoint? Tentu kita berpikiran untuk membawanya ke laundry, dan setelah itu habis perkara. Namun bagaimana kalau laundry itu tidak memiliki spotting pembersih? Tentu anda akan semakin jengkel bukan?

Envirocare meracik chemical speciality untuk mengatasi noda tersebut. Dengan formulasi solvent organik, surfactant dan enzime dengan teknologi dari Amerika, kami tawarkan SPARTAN SP, SPARTAN RS, dan SP7 untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut.

Produk Spotting kami telah digunakan dibanyak laundry commercial di Jakarta dan Sekitarnya, bahkan beberapa Rumah Sakit dan Hotel kelas A telah membuktikan ke unggulannya. Dengan harga yang kompetitif anda dapat menghemat 900% pengeluaran anda untuk membeli produk import yang sejenis dengan produk kami.

Segera hubungi sales representatif kami : Rina dan Clara

PT. Union Ajidharma

Graha Ajidharma

Jl. Danau Sunter Selatan Blok O IV kav.25-26 Jakarta

Telp. (021) 651 1021, 650 9518, 651 1684

Fax (021) 651 2911, 651 0049

email : envirocare@union.co.id atau  info01@union.co.id

kunjungi web kami  www.union.co.id

Tips menghilangkan noda minyak pada sarung bantal

Hotel ataupun penginapan biasanya menggunakan sarung bantal berwarna putih. Maksud dan tujuannya agar selalu terlihat bersih. Namun bagaimana bila pelanggan kita menggunakan minyak rambut? tentu bukan pekerjaan mudah untuk menghilangkannya.

Tapi jangan khawatir kami memiliki tips untuk anda yang mengalaminya.

Ambilah Grease Go Plus, campurkan kedalam air dengan perbandingan 1 : 20. Rendam beberapa saat, kemudian kucek atau sikat bagian nodanya. Selanjutnya masukkan dalam mesin cuci,lakukan pencucian normal. Niscaya noda minyak akan menghilang,dan sarung bantal menjadi bersih terbebas dari noda.

Hubungi kami (021) 651 1021 untuk mendapatkan penawaran produk Grease Go Plus. Grease Go Plus telah dipakai dibanyak industri laundry.

http://www.union.co.id/hygienechemicals.php

Detergent Laundry

Produk Spartan Det Extra berbeda dengan detergent cuci lain pada umumnya.

Pebedaan yang mendasar adalah sebagai berikut:

  1. Spartan Det Extra mengandung chelating agent sehingga tidak terpengaruh oleh
    kondisi kesadahan air (detergent biasa pada kondisi air sadah menjadi tidak
    efektif).
  2. Spartan Det Extra mengandung bahan corrotion inhibitor atau bahan pencegah
    terbentuknya karat,sehingga membuat awet tabung mesin cuci (kebanyakan detergent
    lain tidak mengandung bahan ini, sehingga pemakaian dlm jangka waktu 2 tahun saja
    tabung sudah meulai berkarat)
  3. Spartan Det Extra mengandung antimicrobial agent sehingga menjadikan cucian lebih
    hygienis
  4. Spartan Det Extra tidak mengandung phosphate seperti kebanyakan detergent lain,
    oleh karenanya produk ini lebih ramah terhadap lingkungan
  5. Spartan Det extra menjadi produk rekomendasi untuk digunakan pada mesincuci merk IPSO Belgia

Hubungi representative kami untuk penawaran produk di (021) 651 1021
www.union.co.id

Lowongan Pekerjaan

PT. UNION AJIDHARMA adalah perusahaan distribusi bahan baku kimia yang sedang berkembang pesat, yang mempunyai jaringan bisnis multinational.

Saat ini PT. UNION AJIDHARMA membuka kesempatan kepada para candidate yang energik, jujur dan berkomitmen untuk bergabung dan bertumbuh bersama  kami.

Posisi yang dibutuhkan adalah :

  1. 1. STAFF ACCOUNTING
    1. Pria/Wanita max usia 30 tahun ; Lulusan S1 Accounting; IPK  min 3.00
    2. Min. Pengalaman 2 (dua) tahun di bidang accounting
    3. Memiliki antusiasme dan semangat belajar yang tinggi.
  1. 2. STAFF FINANCE
    1. Wanita max usia 27 tahun; Lulusan S1 Accounting/Ekonomi;  IPK min 3.00
    2. Mampu dan bersedia bekerja di bawah tekanan dan berorientasi target.
    3. Menguasai bahasa Inggris baik lisan maupun tulisan dan computer.
    4. Punya rasa percaya diri dan keahlian komunikasi yang baik dan dapat bekerjasama dalam team.
  1. 3. STAFF ADM PURCHASING
    1. Wanita max usia 27 tahun; Lulusan min D3 (semua jurusan)
    2. Mampu dan bersedia bekerja di bawah tekanan dan berorientasi target.
    3. Menguasai bahasa Inggris baik lisan maupun tulisan dan computer.
    4. Punya rasa percaya diri dan keahlian komunikasi yang baik serta mampu bekerja sama dalam  team.
    5. Bersedia melakukan perjalanan dinas luar.
  1. 4. SALES EXECUTIVE
    1. Wanita/Pria max usia 27 tahun; Lulusan min D3 segala Jurusan
    2. Mampu dan bersedia bekerja di bawah tekanan dan berorientasi target.
    3. Menguasai bahasa Inggris baik lisan maupun tulisan dan menguasai computer.
    4. Punya rasa percaya diri dan keahlian komunikasi yang baik serta mampu bekerja sama dalam  team.
    5. Bersedia melakukan perjalanan dinas luar.

Candidate yang  serius, silakan mengirimkan lamaran lengkap  ke ga@union.co.id.

Terima kasih atas perhatiannya.

Jakarta, 15 Februari 2012

Hormat kami,

Wing Agustina.

visit my website: www.union.co.id

LAUNDRYchemicals & Equipment

GREASE GO PLUS (LIQUID EMULSIFIER)

DESKRIPSI

GREASE GO PLUS

adalah surfactant yang mengandung solvent khusus yang diformu-lasikan  untuk membantu menghilangkan noda darah, minyak dan kotoran karbon,

GREASE GO PLUS

sangat ampuh untuk melunakkan dan melepaskan kotoran berat pada cucian.

GREASE GO PLUS

dapat digunakan untuk pencucian handuk, cook’s jakets, maupun linen dan kain dengan kotoran berat lainnya

FUNGSI DAN APLIKASI

  • Efektif  membantu detergent melepas kotoran.
  • Dapat digunakan pada kesadahan air sedang maupun tinggi.
  • Gunakan Grease Go Plus dengan konsentrasi 2-5 ml percucian kering.

KESELAMATAN

Merujuk pada MSDS. Hubungi representatif Union Envirocare untuk informasi lanjut.

PROPERTI

Penampakan            : cairan kekuningan

pH                   : 9.0 – 12.9

Bau                 : Solvent

Kelarutan      : Larut

SPARTAN DET EXTRA (LIQUID LAUNDRY DETERGENT)

DESKRIPSI

Spartan Det Extra adalah Detergent cair rendah busa, mengandung non-ionic surfactant,  ramah lingkungan, .

Spartan Det Extra mengandung  bahan active  untuk menetralisir kesadahan air, sehingga membuat detergent tetap efektif.

Spartan Det Extra mengandung bahan anti corrosif (corrotion inhibitor) sehingga membuat mesin anda tetap awet.

KEMASAN

Tersedia dalam kemasan pail 25 ltr

APLIKASI PEMAKAIAN

Gunakan untuk pakaian putih maupun berwarna.

Rekomendasi :

  • Kotoran Ringan : 3 – 4 ml per kilogram cucian kering
  • Kotoran Sedang : 4 – 6 ml per kilogram cucian kering
  • Kotoran Berat : 6 – 8 ml per kilogram cucian kering

Suhu pemakaian optimum: 50°C – 60°C

KOMPOSISI

Bentuk  : Cairan bening

pH (1%) : 10 – 11

Kelarutan dalam air : Larut

Spartan Chlor SP

Spartan Chlor SP merupakan bahan pembersih ekonomis  untuk spotting,  pada linen, handuk, sprei, sarung bantal, cook jaket dan taplak meja yang berwarna putih.

Menghilangkan kotoran berat yang tidak dapat dihilangkan dengan proses pencucian laundry secara normal, seperti noda minyak, darah, noda kopi, noda teh, dan carbon .

Spartan Chlor SP dapat digunakan pula pada proses pencucian laundry didalam mesin.

Penggunaan:

Untuk spotting gunakan Spartan Chlor SP secara murni, teteskan atau semprotkan secukupnya pada noda dan diamkan lebih kurang 3 menit agar terjadi reaksi, selanjutnya gosok permukaan kotoran tersebut dengan menggunakan sikat halus, sikat searah agar tidak merusak serat kain.

Untuk ditambahkan didalam mesin,  gunakan Spartan Chlor SP sebanyak 2,5 ml sampai 5 ml per Kg cucian kering. Gunakan Spartan Sour atau Spartan RS untuk menetralisir

Komposisi:

Bentuk dan Warna    : Cairan kekuningan

Bau                             : Chlorine

pH                               :12 – 13

Kelarutan                   : Larut sempurna

S.G                               : 1.1 ± 0.3

Simpan ditempat yang sejuk dankering. Jauhkan dari kontak dengan sinar matahari secara langsung.

PT. Union Ajidharma

Graha Ajidharma

http//www.union.co.id

Sodium carbonate/Soda Ash Dense

Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3 is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. It most commonly occurs as a crystalline heptahydrate, which readily effloresces to form a white powder, the monohydrate. Sodium carbonate is domestically well known for its everyday use as a water softener. It can be extracted from the ashes of many plants. It is synthetically produced in large quantities from salt and limestone in a process known as the Solvay process.

Uses

The manufacture of glass is one of the most important uses of sodium carbonate. When combined with silica and calcium carbonate and heated to high temperatures, then cooled rapidly, glass is produced. This type of glass is known as soda lime glass.

Sodium carbonate is also used as a relatively strong base in various settings. For example, sodium carbonate is used as a pH regulator to maintain stable alkaline conditions necessary for the action of the majority of photographic developing agents.

It is a common additive in municipal pools used to neutralize the acidic effects of chlorine and raise pH.

In cooking, it is sometimes used in place of sodium hydroxide for lyeing, especially with German pretzels and lye rolls. These dishes are treated with a solution of an alkaline substance in order to change the pH of the surface of the food and thus improve browning.

In taxidermy, sodium carbonate added to boiling water will remove flesh from the skull or bones of trophies to create the “European skull mount” or for educational display in biological and historical studies.

In chemistry, it is often used as an electrolyte. This is because electrolytes are usually salt-based, and sodium carbonate acts as a very good conductor in the process of electrolysis. In addition, unlike chloride ions, which form chlorine gas, carbonate ions are not corrosive to the anodes. It is also used as a primary standard for acid-base titrations because it is solid and air-stable, making it easy to weigh accurately. It is also used to speed up the decomposition of water in electrolysis.

Domestic use

In domestic use, it is used as a water softener during laundry. It competes with the magnesium and calcium ions in hard water and prevents them from bonding with the detergent being used. Without using washing soda, additional detergent is needed to soak up the magnesium and calcium ions. Called washing soda, soda crystals, or sal soda in the detergent section of stores, it effectively removes oil, grease, and alcohol stains. Sodium carbonate is also used as a descaling agent in boilers such as those found in coffee pots, espresso machines, etc.

In dyeing with fiber-reactive dyes, sodium carbonate (often under a name such as soda ash fixative or soda ash activator) is used to ensure proper chemical bonding of the dye with cellulose (plant) fibers, typically before dyeing (for tie dyes), mixed with the dye (for dye painting), or after dyeing (for immersion dyeing).

Other applications

Sodium carbonate is a food additive (E500) used as an acidity regulator, anti-caking agent, raising agent, and stabilizer. It is one of the components of kansui, a solution of alkaline salts used to give ramen noodles their characteristic flavor and texture. It is also used in the production of snus (Swedish-style snuff) to stabilize the pH of the final product. In Sweden, snus is regulated as a food product because it is put into the mouth, requires pasteurization, and contains only ingredients that are approved as food additives.

Sodium carbonate is also used in the production of sherbet powder. The cooling and fizzing sensation results from the endothermic reaction between sodium carbonate and a weak acid, commonly citric acid, releasing carbon dioxide gas, which occurs when the sherbet is moistened by saliva.

In China, it is used to replace lye-water in the crust of traditional Cantonese moon cakes, and in many other Chinese steamed buns and noodles.

Sodium carbonate is used by the brick industry as a wetting agent to reduce the amount of water needed to extrude the clay.

In casting, it is referred to as “bonding agent” and is used to allow wet alginate to adhere to gelled alginate.

Sodium carbonate is used in toothpastes, where it acts as a foaming agent and an abrasive, and to temporarily increase mouth pH.

Sodium carbonate is used to create the photo process known as reticulation.

Sodium carbonate, in a solution with common salt, may be used for cleaning silver. In a non-reactive container (glass, plastic or ceramic) aluminium foil and the silver object are immersed in the hot salt solution. The elevated pH dissolves the aluminium oxide layer on the foil and enables an electrolytic cell to be established . Hydrogen ions produced by this reaction reduce the sulphide ions on the silver restoring silver metal. The sulphide can be released as small amounts of hydrogen sulphide. Rinsing and gently polishing the silver restores a highly polished condition. [3]

Hazards

According to the MSDS, Sodium Carbonate could cause the following hazards:

Potential Acute Health Effects: Hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant), of eye contact (irritant), of ingestion, of inhalation (lung irritant).

Potential Chronic Health Effects: Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (sensitizer). The substance may be toxic to upper respiratory tract, skin, eyes. Repeated or prolonged exposure to the substance can produce target organs damage.

Occurrence

Sodium carbonate crystallizes from water to form three different hydrates:

  1. sodium carbonate decahydrate (natron)
  2. sodium carbonate heptahydrate (not known in mineral form)
  3. sodium carbonate monohydrate (mineral thermonatrite)

Sodium carbonate is soluble in water, but can occur naturally in arid regions, especially in mineral deposits (evaporites) formed when seasonal lakes evaporate. Deposits of the mineral natron have been mined from dry lake bottoms in Egypt since ancient times, when natron was used in the preparation of mummies and in the early manufacture of glass.

The anhydrous mineral form of sodium carbonate is quite rare and called natrite. Sodium carbonate also erupts from Ol Doinyo Lengai, Tanzania’s unique volcano, and it is presumed erupted from other volcanoes in the past but, due to these minerals’ instability at the earth’s surface, are likely to be eroded. All three mineralogical forms of sodium carbonate, as well as trona, trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dihydrate, are also known from ultra-alkaline pegmatitic rocks, that occur for example in the Kola Peninsula in Russia.

Production

Mining

Trona, trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dihydrate (Na3HCO3CO3·2H2O), is mined in several areas of the United States and provides nearly all the domestic sodium carbonate. Large natural deposits found in 1938, such as the one near Green River, Wyoming, have made mining more economical than industrial production in North America.

It is also mined from some alkaline lakes such as Lake Magadi in Kenya by dredging. Hot saline springs continuously replenish salt in the lake so that, provided the rate of dredging is no greater than the replenishment rate, the source is fully sustainable.

Barilla and kelp

Several “halophyte” (salt-tolerant) plant species and seaweed species can be processed to yield an impure form of sodium carbonate, and these sources predominated in Europe and elsewhere until the early 19th century. The land plants (typically glassworts or saltworts) or the seaweed (typically Fucus species) were harvested, dried, and burned. The ashes were then “lixiviated” (washed with water) to form an alkali solution. This solution was boiled dry to create the final product, which was termed “soda ash”; this very old name refers to the archetypal plant source for soda ash, which was the small annual shrub Salsola soda (“barilla plant”).

The sodium carbonate concentration in soda ash varied very widely, from 2–3 percent for the seaweed-derived form (“kelp“), to 30 percent for the best barilla produced from saltwort plants in Spain. Plant and seaweed sources for soda ash, and also for the related alkalipotash“, became increasingly inadequate by the end of the 18th century, and the search for commercially-viable routes to synthesizing soda ash from salt and other chemicals intensified.[4]

Leblanc process

Main article: Leblanc process

In 1791, the French chemist Nicolas Leblanc patented a process for producing sodium carbonate from salt, sulfuric acid, limestone, and coal. First, sea salt (sodium chloride) was boiled in sulfuric acid to yield sodium sulfate and hydrogen chloride gas, according to the chemical equation

2 NaCl + H2SO4Na2SO4 + 2 HCl

Next, the sodium sulfate was blended with crushed limestone (calcium carbonate) and coal, and the mixture was burnt, producing calcium sulfide.

Na2SO4 + CaCO3 + 2 C → Na2CO3 + 2 CO2 + CaS

The sodium carbonate was extracted from the ashes with water, and then collected by allowing the water to evaporate.

The hydrochloric acid produced by the Leblanc process was a major source of air pollution, and the calcium sulfide byproduct also presented waste disposal issues. However, it remained the major production method for sodium carbonate until the late 1880s.[4][5]

Solvay process

Main article: Solvay process

In 1861, the Belgian industrial chemist Ernest Solvay developed a method to convert sodium chloride to sodium carbonate using ammonia. The Solvay process centered around a large hollow tower. At the bottom, calcium carbonate (limestone) was heated to release carbon dioxide:

CaCO3CaO + CO2

At the top, a concentrated solution of sodium chloride and ammonia entered the tower. As the carbon dioxide bubbled up through it, sodium bicarbonate precipitated:

NaCl + NH3 + CO2 + H2ONaHCO3 + NH4Cl

The sodium bicarbonate was then converted to sodium carbonate by heating it, releasing water and carbon dioxide:

2 NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2

Meanwhile, the ammonia was regenerated from the ammonium chloride byproduct by treating it with the lime (calcium hydroxide) left over from carbon dioxide generation:

CaO + H2OCa(OH)2
Ca(OH)2 + 2 NH4ClCaCl2 + 2 NH3 + 2 H2O

Because the Solvay process recycles its ammonia, it consumes only brine and limestone, and has calcium chloride as its only waste product. This made it substantially more economical than the Leblanc process, and it soon came to dominate world sodium carbonate production. By 1900, 90% of sodium carbonate was produced by the Solvay process, and the last Leblanc process plant closed in the early 1920s.

Hou’s process

Developed by Chinese chemist Hou Debang in 1930s, the first few steps are the same as the Solvay process. However, instead of treating the remaining solution with lime, carbon dioxide and ammonia are pumped into the solution, then sodium chloride is added until the solution saturates at 40 °C. Next, the solution is cooled to 10 °C. Ammonium chloride precipitates and is removed by filtration, and the solution is recycled to produce more sodium carbonate. Hou’s process eliminates the production of calcium chloride and the byproduct ammonium chloride can be refined or used as a fertilizer.

Soda process

(a subpart of the Solvay process) Sodium Bicarbonate is readily available as Baking Soda. Heating it releases water and carbon dioxide:

2NaHCO3(s) → Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2

SYUKURAN PENGHARGAAN PRIMANIYARTA 2011

Keluarga Besar PT Union Ajidharma dan ATS Adakan Gathering

Keluarga besar karyawan PT Union Ajidharma dan PT Ajidharmamas Tritunggal Sakti (ATS) baru saja menggelar Ghatering di Kinasih Resort Cimanggis, Depok, Minggu (18/12) lalu.

Pertemuan ini berlangsung meriah karena dihadiri jajaran manajemen dan segenap karyawan PT Union Ajidharma dan PT ATS. Mereka hadir secara kompak menggunakan kaus berwarna putih bertuliskan ‘Winner Primaniyarta Award 2011’.

President Komisaris PT Union Ajidharma Dr (HC) Adjie Susanto beserta isteri dan jajaran direksi seperti Iwan Hadikusumo, Elliwani, Satyawati Susanto, Arifin Gozali, Hj Taoetoek Soekarsih, Didi Harmadi Mujono dan Wahab Dharmawan turut hadir bersama keluarga untuk memeriahkan acara.

Gathering karyawan yang mengambil tema Creative, Inovative and Togetherness ini digelar dalam rangka syukuran atas keberhasilan PT ATS meraih penghargaan Primaniyarta 2011 untuk kategori UKM Ekspor dari Direktorat Jenderal Pengembangan Ekspor Nasional Kementerian Perdagangan RI.

Penghargaan diberikan langsung oleh Wakil Presiden Boediono kepada General Manager PT ATS Satyawati Susanto pada 19 Oktober 2011. PT ATS yang berdiri sejak 1991 ini merupakan salah satu anak perusahaan PT Union Ajidharma.

Acara dimulai pukul 09.00 WIB, diawali dengan meneriakkan yel-yel Union Ajidharma dan ATS oleh seluruh direksi dan karyawan dengan penuh antusias. Dilanjutkan dengan menyanyikan lagu kebangsaan Indonesia Raya.

Selepas itu General Manager PT ATS Satyawati Susanto menyampaikan kata sambutan. Di hadapan manajemen dan seluruh karyawan yang hadir. Satyawati menceritakan perjalanan singkat perusahaan yang berangkat dari nol hingga bisa meraih 30 persen pasar ekspor internasional.

“Keberhasilan ini dibangun dari hati dan kerja keras setiap hari yang terus kita bangun untuk selalu menjadi yang terbaik,” ucapnya sambil tertawa gembira.

Satyawati kemudian mengucapkan terima kasih atas prestasi yang telah diraih. “Nah dalam kesempatan ini kita banyak berikan apresiasi kepada karyawan dan manajemen yang telah banyak memberikan kontribusi atas keberhasilan yang dicapai perusahaan,” ucapnya.

Setelah pertunjukan tarian 1.000 Tangan dan prosesi pagelaran Piala Primaniyarta 2011, Satyawati dan direksi lainnya Iwan Hadikusumo serta Arifin Gozali memberikan penghargaan kepada kontributor Primaniyarta Award 2011, penghargaan untuk direksi, penghargaan untuk karyawan dengan masa kerja 20 dan 30 tahun, penghargaan untuk kinerja tim kategori Creative and Innovative dan kategori Safety serta koordinator tim untuk meraih ASEM Eco Innovation Consulting Services for SMEs.

Momen gathering rupanya tidak disia-siakan oleh segenap direksi dan karyawan Union Ajidharma dan ATS. Mereka membuat sebuah surprise kepada President Komisaris PT Union Ajidharma Dr (HC) Adjie Susanto yang kebetulan saat itu sedang berulang tahun.

Tanpa sepengetahuan yang berulang tahun, para direksi dan karyawan bersama-sama membawakan kue ulang tahun dan hadiah berupa foto Adjie Susanto berukuran besar. Sontak Adjie Susanto merasa kagum dan haru mendapatkan surprise dari karyawan yang selama ini ia anggap seperti keluarga.

“Saya merasa haru dan bersyukur, saya ucapkan terima kasih kepada semuanya,” ucap Adjie sambil melemparkan senyum kepada seluruh hadirin. Di kesempatan itu juga Adjie mengucapkan terima kasih kepada isteri tercinta yang telah mensupportnya hingga sukses seperti sekarang ini.

Suasana penuh kekeluargaan pun begitu terasa takkala seluruh direksi dan karyawan bersama-sama menyanyikan lagu selamat ulang tahun buat Adjie Susanto yang mereka anggap seperti orang tua sendiri.

Di penghujung acara, tarian Kipas dan sejumlah penampilan yang dibawakan oleh para karyawan turut memeriahkan acara. kris


SYUKURAN PENGHARGAAN PRIMANIYARTA 2011 - 1

SYUKURAN PENGHARGAAN PRIMANIYARTA 2011 - 2

SYUKURAN PENGHARGAAN PRIMANIYARTA 2011 - 3

Phosphoric acid www.union.co.id

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about orthophosphoric acid. For other acids commonly called “phosphoric acid”, see Phosphoric acids and phosphates.
Phosphoric acid
Identifiers
CAS number 7664-38-2 Yes,
16271-20-8 (hemihydrate)
PubChem 1004
ChemSpider 979 Yes
UNII E4GA8884NN Yes
EC number 231-633-2
UN number 1805
KEGG D05467 Yes
ChEBI CHEBI:26078
ChEMBL CHEMBL1187 Yes
RTECS number TB6300000
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula H3PO4
Molar mass 98.00 g/mol
Appearance white solid or colourless, viscous liquid (>42 °C)
Density 1.885 g/mL (liquid)
1.685 g/mL (85 % solution)
2.030 g/mL (crystal at 25 °C)
Melting point 42.35 °C (anhydrous)
29.32 °C (hemihydrate)
Boiling point 158 °C (decomp)
Solubility in water 5.48 g/mL
Acidity (pKa) 2.148, 7.198, 12.375
Viscosity 2.4–9.4 cP (85% aq. soln.)
147 cP (100 %)
Hazards
MSDS ICSC 1008
EU Index 015-011-00-6
EU classification Corrosive (C)
R-phrases R34
S-phrases (S1/2) S26 S45
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
0
2
0
COR
Flash point Non-flammable
Related compounds
Related phosphorus oxoacids Hypophosphorous acid
Phosphorous acid
Pyrophosphoric acid
Triphosphoric acid
Perphosphoric acid
Permonophosphoric acid
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Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Phosphoric acid, also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid, is a mineral (inorganic) acid having the chemical formula H3PO4. Orthophosphoric acid molecules can combine with themselves to form a variety of compounds which are also referred to as phosphoric acids, but in a more general way. The term phosphoric acid can also refer to a chemical or reagent consisting of phosphoric acids, usually orthophosphoric acid.

Contents

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Orthophosphoric acid chemistry

Pure anhydrous phosphoric acid is a white solid that melts at 42.35 °C to form a colorless, viscous liquid.

Most people and even chemists refer to orthophosphoric acid as phosphoric acid, which is the IUPAC name for this compound. The prefix ortho is used to distinguish the acid from other phosphoric acids, called polyphosphoric acids two(ii). Orthophosphoric acid is a non-toxic, inorganic, rather weak triprotic acid, which, when pure, is a solid at room temperature and pressure. The chemical structure of orthophosphoric acid is shown above in the data table. Orthophosphoric acid is a very polar molecule; therefore it is highly soluble in water. The oxidation state of phosphorus (P) in ortho- and other phosphoric acids is +5; the oxidation state of all the oxygen atoms (O) is −2 and all the hydrogen atoms (H) is +1. Triprotic means that an orthophosphoric acid molecule can dissociate up to three times, giving up an H+ each time, which typically combines with a water molecule, H2O, as shown in these reactions:

H3PO4(s) + H2O(l) is in equilibrium with H3O+(aq) + H2PO4(aq) Ka1= 7.25×10−3
H2PO4(aq)+ H2O(l) is in equilibrium with H3O+(aq) + HPO42−(aq) Ka2= 6.31×10−8
HPO42−(aq)+ H2O(l) is in equilibrium with H3O+(aq) +  PO43−(aq) Ka3= 3.98×10−13

The anion after the first dissociation, H2PO4, is the dihydrogen phosphate anion. The anion after the second dissociation, HPO42−, is the hydrogen phosphate anion. The anion after the third dissociation, PO43−, is the phosphate or orthophosphate anion. For each of the dissociation reactions shown above, there is a separate acid dissociation constant, called Ka1, Ka2, and Ka3 given at 25 °C. Associated with these three dissociation constants are corresponding pKa1=2.12 , pKa2=7.21 , and pKa3=12.67 values at 25 °C. Even though all three hydrogen (H) atoms are equivalent on an orthophosphoric acid molecule, the successive Ka values differ since it is energetically less favorable to lose another H+ if one (or more) has already been lost and the molecule/ion is more negatively-charged.

Because the triprotic dissociation of orthophosphoric acid, the fact that its conjugate bases (the phosphates mentioned above) cover a wide pH range, and, because phosphoric acid/phosphate solutions are, in general, non-toxic, mixtures of these types of phosphates are often used as buffering agents or to make buffer solutions, where the desired pH depends on the proportions of the phosphates in the mixtures. Similarly, the non-toxic, anion salts of triprotic organic citric acid are also often used to make buffers. Phosphates are found pervasively in biology, especially in the compounds derived from phosphorylated sugars, such as DNA, RNA, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). There is a separate article on phosphate as an anion or its salts.

Upon heating orthophosphoric acid, condensation of the phosphoric units can be induced by driving off the water formed from condensation. When one molecule of water has been removed for each two molecules of phosphoric acid, the result is pyrophosphoric acid (H4P2O7). When an average of one molecule of water per phosphoric unit has been driven off, the resulting substance is a glassy solid having an empirical formula of HPO3 and is called metaphosphoric acid.[1] Metaphosphoric acid is a singly anhydrous version of orthophosphoic acid and is sometimes used as a water- or moisture-absorbing reagent. Further dehydrating is very difficult, and can be accomplished only by means of an extremely strong desiccant (and not by heating alone). It produces phosphoric anhydride, which has an empirical formula P2O5, although an actual molecule has a chemical formula of P4O10. Phosphoric anhydride is a solid, which is very strongly moisture-absorbing and is used as a desiccant.

[edit] Composition and pH of a phosphoric acid aqueous solution

For a given total acid concentration [A] = [H3PO4] + [H2PO4] + [HPO42−] + [PO43−] ([A] is the total number of moles of pure H3PO4 which have been used to prepare 1 liter of solution), the composition of an aqueous solution of phosphoric acid can be calculated using the equilibrium equations associated with the three reactions described above together with the [H+][OH] = 10−14 relation and the electrical neutrality equation. Possible concentrations of polyphosphoric molecules and ions is neglected. The system may be reduced to a fifth degree equation for [H+] which can be solved numerically, yielding:

[A] (mol/L) pH [H3PO4]/[A] (%) [H2PO4]/[A] (%) [HPO42−]/[A] (%) [PO43−]/[A] (%)
1 1.08 91.7 8.29 6.20×10−6 1.60×10−17
10−1 1.62 76.1 23.9 6.20×10−5 5.55×10−16
10−2 2.25 43.1 56.9 6.20×10−4 2.33×10−14
10−3 3.05 10.6 89.3 6.20×10−3 1.48×10−12
10−4 4.01 1.30 98.6 6.19×10−2 1.34×10−10
10−5 5.00 0.133 99.3 0.612 1.30×10−8
10−6 5.97 1.34×10−2 94.5 5.50 1.11×10−6
10−7 6.74 1.80×10−3 74.5 25.5 3.02×10−5
10−10 7.00 8.24×10−4 61.7 38.3 8.18×10−5

For large acid concentrations, the solution is mainly composed of H3PO4. For [A] = 10−2, the pH is close to pKa1, giving an equimolar mixture of H3PO4 and H2PO4. For [A] below 10−3, the solution is mainly composed of H2PO4 with [HPO42−] becoming non negligible for very dilute solutions. [PO43−] is always negligible. Note that the above analysis does not take into account ion activity coefficients; as such, the pH and molarity of a real phosphoric acid solution may deviate substantially from the above values.

Chemical reagent

Pure 75–85% aqueous solutions (the most common) are clear, colourless, odourless, non-volatile, rather viscous, syrupy liquids, but still pourable. Phosphoric acid is very commonly used as an aqueous solution of 85% phosphoric acid or H3PO4. Because it is a concentrated acid, an 85% solution can be corrosive, although nontoxic when diluted. Because of the high percentage of phosphoric acid in this reagent, at least some of the orthophosphoric acid is condensed into polyphosphoric acids in a temperature-dependent equilibrium, but, for the sake of labeling and simplicity, the 85% represents H3PO4 as if it were all orthophosphoric acid. Other percentages are possible too, even above 100%, where the phosphoric acids and water would be in an unspecified equilibrium, but the overall elemental mole content would be considered specified. When aqueous solutions of phosphoric acid and/or phosphate are dilute, they are in or will reach an equilibrium after a while where practically all the phosphoric/phosphate units are in the ortho- form.

Preparation of hydrogen halides

Phosphoric acid reacts with halides to form the corresponding hydrogen halide gas (steamy fumes are observed on warming the reaction mixture). This is a common practice for the laboratory preparation of hydrogen halides.

NaCl(s) + H3PO4(l) → NaH2PO4(s) + HCl(g)
NaBr(s) + H3PO4(l) → NaH2PO4(s) + HBr(g)
NaI(s) + H3PO4(l) → NaH2PO4(s) + HI(g)

Rust removal

Phosphoric acid may be used as a “rust converter”, by direct application to rusted iron, steel tools, or surfaces. The phosphoric acid converts reddish-brown iron(III) oxide, Fe2O3 (rust) to black ferric phosphate, FePO4.

“Rust converter” is sometimes a greenish liquid suitable for dipping (in the same sort of acid bath as is used for pickling metal), but it is more often formulated as a gel, commonly called naval jelly. It is sometimes sold under other names, such as “rust remover” or “rust killer”. As a thick gel, it may be applied to sloping, vertical, or even overhead surfaces.

After treatment, the black ferric-phosphate coating can be scrubbed off, leaving a fresh metal surface. Multiple applications of phosphoric acid may be required to remove all rust. The black phosphate coating can also be left in place, where it will provide moderate further corrosion resistance (such protection is also provided by the superficially similar Parkerizing and blued electrochemical conversion coating processes).

Processed food use

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Food-grade phosphoric acid (additive E338) is used to acidify foods and beverages such as various colas, but not without controversy regarding its health effects. It provides a tangy or sour taste and, being a mass-produced chemical, is available cheaply and in large quantities. The low cost and bulk availability is unlike more expensive seasonings that give comparable flavors, such as citric acid which is obtainable from lemons and limes. However, most citric acid in the food industry is not extracted from citrus fruit, but fermented by Aspergillus niger mold from scrap molasses, waste starch hydrolysates and phosphoric acid.

[edit] Biological effects on bone calcium and kidney health

Phosphoric acid, used in many soft drinks (primarily cola), has been linked to lower bone density in epidemiological studies. For example, a study[2] using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry rather than a questionnaire about breakage, provides reasonable evidence to support the theory that drinking cola results in lower bone density. This study was published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. A total of 1672 women and 1148 men were studied between 1996 and 2001. Dietary information was collected using a food frequency questionnaire that had specific questions about the number of servings of cola and other carbonated beverages and that also made a differentiation between regular, caffeine-free, and diet drinks. The paper cites significant statistical evidence to show that women who consume cola daily have lower bone density. Total phosphorus intake was not significantly higher in daily cola consumers than in nonconsumers; however, the calcium-to-phosphorus ratios were lower.

On the other hand, another study suggests that insufficient intake of phosphorus leads to lower bone density. The study does not examine the effect of phosphoric acid, which binds with magnesium and calcium in the digestive tract to form salts that are not absorbed, but rather studies general phosphorus intake.[3]

A clinical study by Heaney and Rafferty using calcium-balance methods found no impact of carbonated soft drinks containing phosphoric acid on calcium excretion.[4] The study compared the impact of water, milk, and various soft drinks (two with caffeine and two without; two with phosphoric acid and two with citric acid) on the calcium balance of 20- to 40-year-old women who customarily consumed ~3 or more cups (680 mL) of a carbonated soft drink per day. They found that, relative to water, only milk and the two caffeine-containing soft drinks increased urinary calcium, and that the calcium loss associated with the caffeinated soft drink consumption was about equal to that previously found for caffeine alone. Phosphoric acid without caffeine had no impact on urine calcium, nor did it augment the urinary calcium loss related to caffeine. Because studies have shown that the effect of caffeine is compensated for by reduced calcium losses later in the day,[5] Heaney and Rafferty concluded that the net effect of carbonated beverages—including those with caffeine and phosphoric acid—is negligible, and that the skeletal effects of carbonated soft drink consumption are likely due primarily to milk displacement.

Other chemicals such as caffeine (also a significant component of popular common cola drinks) were also suspected as possible contributors to low bone density, due to the known effect of caffeine on calciuria. One other study, involving 30 women over the course of a week, suggests that phosphoric acid in colas has no such effect, and postulates that caffeine has only a temporary effect, which is later reversed. The authors of this study conclude that the skeletal effects of carbonated beverage consumption are likely due primarily to milk displacement[4] (another possible confounding factor may be an association between high soft drink consumption and sedentary lifestyle).

Medical use

Phosphoric acid is used in dentistry and orthodontics as an etching solution, to clean and roughen the surfaces of teeth where dental appliances or fillings will be placed. Phosphoric acid is also an ingredient in over-the-counter anti-nausea medications that also contain high levels of sugar (glucose and fructose). This acid is also used in many teeth whiteners to eliminate plaque that may be on the teeth before application.

Preparation

Phosphoric acid can be prepared by three routes – the thermal process, the wet process and the dry kiln process.

Thermal phosphoric acid

This very pure phosphoric acid is obtained by burning elemental phosphorus to produce phosphorus pentoxide and dissolving the product in dilute phosphoric acid. This produces a very pure phosphoric acid, since most impurities present in the rock have been removed when extracting phosphorus from the rock in a furnace. The end result is food-grade, thermal phosphoric acid; however, for critical applications, additional processing to remove arsenic compounds may be needed.

Elemental phosphorus is produced by an electric furnace. At a high temperature, a mixture of phosphate ore, silica and carbonaceous material (coke, coal etc…) produces calcium silicate, phosphorus gas and carbon monoxide. The P and CO off-gases from this reaction are cooled under water to isolate solid phosphorus. Alternatively, the P and CO off-gases can be burned with air to produce phosphorus pentoxide and carbon dioxide.

Wet phosphoric acid

Wet process phosphoric acid is prepared by adding sulfuric acid to tricalcium phosphate rock, typically found in nature as apatite.

The reaction is:

Ca5(PO4)3X + 5 H2SO4 + 10 H2O → 3 H3PO4 + 5 CaSO4·2H2O + HX
where X may include OH, F, Cl, and Br

The initial phosphoric acid solution may contain 23–33% P2O5, but can be concentrated by the evaporation of water to produce commercial- or merchant-grade phosphoric acid, which contains about 54% P2O5. Further evaporation of water yields superphosphoric acid with a P2O5 concentration above 70%.[6][7]

Digestion of the phosphate ore using sulfuric acid yields the insoluble calcium sulfate (gypsum), which is filtered and removed as phosphogypsum. Wet-process acid can be further purified by removing fluorine to produce animal-grade phosphoric acid, or by solvent extraction and arsenic removal to produce food-grade phosphoric acid.

Other applications

  • Phosphoric acid is used as a flux by hobbyists (such as model railroaders) as an aid to soldering.
  • In compound semiconductor processing, phosphoric acid is a common wet etching agent: for example, in combination with hydrogen peroxide and water it is used to etch InGaAs selective to InP.[9]
  • Hot phosphoric acid is used in microfabrication to etch silicon nitride (Si3N4). It is highly selective in etching Si3N4 instead of SiO2, silicon dioxide.[10]
  • Phosphoric acid is used as a cleaner by construction trades to remove mineral deposits, cementitious smears, and hard water stains.
  • Phosphoric acid is also used as a chelant in some household cleaners aimed at similar cleaning tasks.
  • Phosphoric acid is also used in hydroponics pH solutions to lower the pH of nutrient solutions. While other types of acids can be used, phosphorus is a nutrient used by plants, especially during flowering, making phosphoric acid particularly desirable.
  • Phosphoric acid is used as a pH adjuster in cosmetics and skin-care products.[11]
  • Phosphoric acid can be used as a dispersing agent in detergents and leather treatment.
  • Phosphoric acid can be used as an additive to stabilize acidic aqueous solutions within a wanted and specified pH range
  • Phosphoric acid is the ingredient that provides acidity to Coca-Cola and Pepsi sodas.

See also

References

  1. ^ phosphoric acid. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
  2. ^ Katherine L Tucker, Kyoko Morita, Ning Qiao, Marian T Hannan, L Adrienne Cupples and Douglas P Kiel (2006). “Colas, but not other carbonated beverages, are associated with low bone mineral density in older women: The Framingham osteoporosis study”. Am. J Clin. Nut. 84 (4): 936–42. PMID 17023723.
  3. ^ S. Elmståhl, B. Gullberg, L. Janzon, O. Johnell and B. Elmståhl (1998). “Increased incidence of fractures in middle-aged and elderly men with low intakes of phosphorus and zinc”. Osteoporosis International 8 (4): 333–340. doi:10.1007/s001980050072. PMID 10024903.
  4. ^ a b Heaney R.P. and Rafferty K. (2001). “Carbonated beverages and urinary calcium excretion”. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 74 (3): 343–347. PMID 11522558.
  5. ^ Barger-Lux M.J., Heaney R.P. and Stegman M.R. (1990). “Effects of moderate caffeine intake on the calcium economy of premenopausal women [published erratum appears in Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1991 Jan;53(1):182]“. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 52 (4): 722–725. PMID 2403065.
  6. ^ US 4721519
  7. ^ “Super Phosphoric Acid 0-68-0 Material Safety Data Sheet”. J.R. Simplot Company. May 2009. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
  8. ^ C. Toles, S. Rimmera and J. C. Hower (1996). “Production of activated carbons from a Washington lignite using phosphoric acid activation”. Carbon 34 (11): 1419–1426. doi:10.1016/S0008-6223(96)00093-0.
  9. ^ Wet chemical etching.
  10. ^ Wolf, S.; R.N. Tauber (1986). Silicon processing for the VLSI era: Volume 1 – Process technology. pp. 534. ISBN 0961672161.
  11. ^ “Ingredient dictionary: P”. Cosmetic ingredient dictionary. Paula’s Choice. Retrieved 2007-11-16

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